Friday, February 21, 2020
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Equipment Introduction

Just like most sports activities, scuba diving requires the use of several equipments to ensure that divers get optimum performance whenever they indulge in the sport. At its minimum, scuba diving needs at least several specific gears, and this should include a mask, a snorkel, a pair of fins, an exposure suit (wetsuit are commonly used in our water), a buoyancy control device, regulators, gauges, and a scuba tank definately. In general, these gears should fit the diver perfectly to ensure safety. Loose fitting gears can pose several dangers, especially when used underwater. Having the right equipment and good equipment can be the difference between having a great dive and an awful dive.

Masks Masks
You need a mask to see underwater, as light behaves differently in water than in air, and your eyes focus according to how light behaves in air. The mask creates an air space so your eyes can focus. Masks are usually made up of a lenses, skirt, frame, and strap. The mask is one of the most important pieces of dive gear. Basically, the mask is the only way you’ll be able to see clearly underwater. A proper fitting mask that is comfortable is priceless. A mask that fits well will prevent leakage and will stay in place on your face.
There is two lenses mask and single lens mask, most masks come with the standard rubber band style strap. These straps will work, but may get tangled in your hair or not feel as comfortable as you’d like. Try one of the neoprene mask straps cover (slap strap) instead. They won’t interfere with your hair and are much more comfortable. Most divers are using these today.

Lets you rest or swim with your face in water, like when you are looking for something below, without wasting tank air. With snorkels, splashing waves would not get into your mouth when the sea surface gets choppy and, if you run low on air away from boat or shore, it makes it easier to swim back, again resting with your face in the water.

Fins Fins
Fins move you through the water whether on the surface or underwater. Designs to fins are constantly changing, but the most important thing to look for is fitting and functionality. You want your fins to fit well and feel comfortable. You also want the proper fin for diving. There are many fins on the market today that are more designed for snorkeling and just don’t have the power to move you adequately through the water. The new split fin design may look neat and may be good if you have week ankles.
There are two types of fins, open heels (pocket) fins and full-foot fins. With open heel fins, only about two thirds of your foot goes into the fin and a strap goes around your heel. Most divers who use pocket fins wear booties, which help with a secure fit and prevent chafing. With full-foot fins, your entire foot goes into the pocket, just like a shoe.

Buoyancy control device, also called as buoyancy compensator. It's an expandable bladder that used to provide flotation at the surface and keep you neutrally buoyant underwater, which is the goal while diving. It is also considered as a life support device, like your regulator, so research should be done when purchasing one. They also hold your tank in place on your back. There are generally two types of BCD on the market today: jacket style and back-inflation. Recent model innovations of BCD equipped with integrated weight pouches, so you can put those heavy weights in the BC than on the weight belt.

Regulators Regulators
A regulator consists of a primary (or first) stage regulator, at least one secondary (or second) stage regulator, and usually 4 hoses. The primary stage attaches directly to the high pressure air tank and feeds high pressure and low pressure hoses. The high pressure hose usually goes to your dive computer or gauges, the low pressure hoses go to your BCD and secondary stage regulators. The low pressure hoses contain air at the same pressure as the water around you. The secondary stage regulators take the low pressure feed from the primary and it delivers air only on demand, when you inhale. You usually have a primary second stage (the one you normally breathe through), and a backup second stage, aka Octopus.

Submersible pressure gauge (SPG) - The SPG is to shows the remaining air pressure left in a scuba air tank. It is connected to a high pressure port on the first stage part of a regulator via a high pressure hose. SPGs are mostly mechanical devices, but some dive computers now have an integrated SPG with digital displays. Mechanical SPGs, also known as Bourdon tubes, are spiral or circular oil-filled tubes that have diaphragms on one end and closed ones on the other. Generally, mechanical SPG works by pushing air pressure against the diaphragm, thus further straightening the tube. Digital SPGs, meanwhile, make use of transducers that efficiently convert pressure into voltage. Once the voltage is converted, it is then turned into a digital signal that signifies a digital readout. Most of the mechanical SPGs on the market today are designed with an accuracy range of 35 to 100 psi when there is 500 psi or less in your tank.
Depth gauge - A depth gauge is a type of a pressure gauge, which determines the corresponding deepness in water. Mechanical depth gauges are similar to the Bourdon tubes in the SPG. Today, most depth gauges are incorporated in dive computers, which measure pressure electronically.

Dive Computers Dive Computers
Dive computers are commonly used in the diving community today. Dive computers provide and record large amounts of information during your dive. Each manufacturer and every dive computer provides different kinds of information. The most common information is depth, time of day, bottom time, water temperature, date, maximum depth, ascent warning, log mode, as well as many others. There are generally two types of computers, stand-alone and air-integrated.

Scuba Cylinders
Scuba cylinders, also called as scuba tank hold the air you breathe while diving. We usually don’t purchase our own tank here in Malaysia because cylinders are easily rented. There are many different sizes of cylinders, but they are either made of aluminum or steel. Capacity sizes range from 40 cubic feet to 130 cubic feet.
Scuba Scuba Cylinders

Wetsuits Wetsuits
Wetsuit is an exposure protection made of neoprene. They provide thermal protection for divers from getting cold, since the body lost heat quickly under the water; wetsuits helps retain heat in the body. Wetsuits also provide some defense from abrasive and sharp objects as well as potentially harmful marine life. Wetsuits come in all sizes, designs, and thicknesses. Some wetsuits only cover your torso area, called shorty and full suit cover your entire body.

Exposure Protections
Exposure protections are designed to keep you warm underwater or protect you from cuts, abrasions, stings, etc. There include gloves of various types and thicknesses, socks with different thinknesses, booties in many styles and designs, special insulating vests and rash guard worn underneath the wetsuit, hoods that can be separate or attached to the wetsuit.
Exposure Protections

Dive Bags Dive Bags
Dive bags are used to carry your dive gear to and from the dive site, boat, or when traveling. Your dive bag should be large enough to carry all of your dive gear plus and extras or spares. There are all kinds of dive bags on the market. Inexpensive mesh bags to large roller bags for traveling. Your dive bag should have either backpack straps or a shoulder strap, which will make it much easier to carry the bag. Some divers also use crates, bins, or plastic boxes to transport and store dive gear. This type of container keeps your wet gear from soaking your back seat or trunk.

Dive Lights
There are many sizes, shapes, styles and quality of dive lights on the market. Dive lights can be used for many diving activities, such as night diving, cave diving, wreck diving, or for looking in holes and crevices. Added light on a dive can also increase the colors you see underwater. All lights are battery operated with either standard batteries or rechargeable batteries. Because of the wide variety of lights on the market and the different types of batteries available, you should know how you plan on using the light, how often, and whether you want to use standard or rechargeable batteries.
Dive Lights

Cutting Tools Cutting Tools
A dive knife are designed to be tools not weapons, their primary purpose is to cut you out of an entanglement from fishing line or kelp or anything else. They are not used as a defense mechanism against marine life. Strapping a large knife to your leg is probably more of a detriment from possible entanglement than a good thing. The ideal knife should be small, sharp, and short and carried in a pocket or on the waist belt of your BC in a sheath. This way, it is easily accessible in case of an emergency. Scissors and shears are usually used for cut line, kelp, or just about anything.

Weights & Weight Belts
Weights and weight belts are used to carry weight that allows you to descend. There are nylon weight belts and weight pocket belts. Nylon belts use the traditional molded lead weights that are threaded onto the belt. Weight stopper should be used to keep the weights in place on the belt. This system works very well and is the least expensive. The weight pocket belts have four to six pockets that usually accommodate soft lead bags. These are more comfortable but more expensive. There are various size soft lead bags and molded lead weights that can be mixed and matched in the belt.
Weights & Weight Belts

Dive Compasses Dive Compasses
Dive compasses are usually needle direct compasses. The compass has a magnetic needle that points north and a bezel that can be rotated around the needle. The bezel is marked from 0 to 360 degrees in a clockwise direction. Compasses also have a lubber line, which is a line on the face of the compass that is used to make sure that the compass is pointed in the same direction that you are going.
Compasses come in all sizes, but the smaller compasses are usually very difficult to use underwater. A bigger, high-quality compass is easy to see and works well underwater. Compasses are used in two basic ways: to determine the direction you are going and to follow a predetermined heading toward a certain destination.

Surface Alert Devices
Diving in the open ocean presents many safety considerations. Among them is the possibility of surfacing far from the dive boat. When you want to make sure you get the attention of the boat crews, a surface alert device is definitely helps to alert divers or boat crews where you are. There are many types of devices available on the market today.
Safety tube (sausage) is one of the most common used alert devices by divers, the safety tubes are brightly colored inflatable tubes; it can be orally inflated on the surface. When not in use, it rolls up to fit inside a pocket or clipped to your BC.
Air Horns (eg: DiveAlert) is easily installed on the inflator hose of any BC, the DiveAlert is the surest way to make sure you are noticed when you surface, but more expensive. Just a simple press of the button and it will produce an incredibly loud and high-pitched whistle.
Storm whistle and Windstorm whistle is another alternative to surface alert device that produces loud whistle and they are totally waterproof. These whistles actually work underwater as well.
Surface Alert Devices

Underwater Signaling Devices Underwater Signaling Devices
You've just seen a great white. You're out of air. Or perhaps you discovered a gold brick in the sand. How do you get your buddy's attention, or help from others? An underwater signaling device answers it all. There are many types of devices available on the market today.
Tang banger is a simple and affordable yet effective way for underwater communication. Just slide the rubber band around your tank, grab the knocker and bang to gain the attention.
SubDuck and Sub-Alert is just same like any other air horns. Easily installed on the inflator hose of your BC, then press the button to generate an audible underwater signal to alert your dive buddy. Some of them work both underwater and surface but some of them are not effective on the surface.
Rattler (shaker) is another alternative to underwater signaling device. Its a slimline stainless steel can that filled will balls, just shake and to gain the attention of your buddy.

Dive Slates
Dive slates are special underwater notepads that you can write on. Dive slates can be very useful for recording information, communicating underwater, and keeping notes about your dive. Once you surface, the information can be transferred to a notebook or computer and then the slate can be erased for the next dive. Slates should be carried in a pocket on your BC so that they don’t dangle, causes drag, or get entangled.
Dive Slates